/ Carpet Glossary

CARPET GLOSSARY


Action Bac
The trademark owned by Patchogue Plymouth Division of Amoco Fabrics Company for a leno weave of slit film and spun polypropylene yarns that form a stretchable, all-synthetic secondary backing fabric.


Alkalinity Test
A test used to determine the alkalinity (ph) of a concrete substrate before deciding on the feasibility of gluing a floor covering material directly to it.


Appearance Retention
The ability of a fabric to retain its original aesthetics, color, and construction integrity. Many carpet appearance retention problems are mistakenly referred to as wear.


Asphalt Tile
A floor tile manufactured with a mixture of synthetic fibers, lime rock, mineral fibers, and coloring. Asphalt is used to bind these materials together.


Backing Secondary
Fabric (normally jute or polypropylene) that is laminated to the back of carpet to reinforce the dimensional stability.


Beck
A vessel for dyeing fabric in a rope form, consisting primarily of a tank and a reel to advance the fabric. Beck dyeing is most commonly applied to cut pile tufted goods.


Berber
A loop style carpet is often referred to as a Berber and can be either produced in a level loop or multi-level loop construction. Often times loop carpets are accented with color flecks to provide a contrast from the primary carpet color.


BCF
Also called Bulk Continuous Filament, it is a yarn that has very long unbroken strands. 

Birdcage
Name for the end of stair rail where the banisters are curved in a spiral to form a newel post.


Blooming
The tendency of cut pile yarns to untwist and flare out at the tips of tufts.


Bonded Cushion
Generally comes in two different forms: 1) Attached cushion materials prepared in sheets prior to being adhered or laminated to a carpet's back (cushion backed carpet) 2) Rebond is cushion manufactured from waste urethane trim from various industries that is shredded and rebonded to form a sheet of urethane foam material. Its quality is generally determined by its density and thickness.


Bowed Pattern
Curved lines which are visible in the width or length of a patterned or plain goods carpet.


Buckling
When a carpet does not lay flat on the floor and has ridges or ripples.


Cut/Loop Pile
Carved definition with cut and loop pile. Accent colors add to a floor's appearance and multi-color effects hide soil and stains. Looks great between vacuuming.  Available in softer tones to bolder color palettes.


Face Weight
Determined by the actual amount of fiber per square yard, and is measured in ounces.


Frieze
A cut pile carpet that has a high twist level, each strand of yarn is twisted so tightly they actually curl over at the end. This creates a textured surface with a casual appearance.  Generally this style has a high durability and very good wear-ability.


Gauge
Distance in inches between needles.


Loop Pile
Carpet yarn that is constructed into small and or bigger loops. In general, loop piles stand up to heavy traffic better than cut piles.


Matting & Crushing
The application of weight (as in a high traffic area) on an installed carpet produces the visual effect of carpet "laying down".


PET
Recycled Polyester Fiber


Saxony
A cut pile carpet made with heat set plied yarns that is relatively dense.  Saxony carpet has a smooth, soft, velvet plush look with a uniform twist and finish.


Sculptured
A carpet pattern formed from high and low carpet pile areas. Can be either a high-low loop or cut and loop combination.


Seams
An area where two pieces of carpet are joined together.


Secondary Backing
Material that is laminated to the back of a tufted carpet with a latex adhesive that enhances the dimensional stability, strength, and stretch resistance.


Shading
An apparent color difference in areas of the same carpet affecting the appearance that is generally caused by normal wear and tuft distortion.. Shading is not an actual change in color, but is a difference in the way the light source reflects off the face of the carpet.


Shag
A deep texture pile with long cut surface yarns. Generally with a height of more than ¾ inch with a density less than 1800.


Shearing
Carpet manufacturing process of removing loose ends, fuzz and projecting fibers that may have been created during the tufting process. The final result is the yarn's tip definition on the finished carpet.


Shedding
Shedding is a natural characteristic of new carpeting. Shedding generally consists of loose carpet fibers and after a period of time, will dissipate with regular vacuuming.


Skewing/Bowing
A condition resulting from distortion forming one or more arcs across the width of the carpet.


SmartStrand™
Carpet made with DuPont Sorona™ polymer represents a breakthrough in carpet fiber technology and is available exclusively from Mohawk Carpet. It is a superior type of carpet fiber that combines exceptional durability with permanent, engineered stain protection that will not wash or wear off.


Soil Retardant
Generally a chemical finish applied to the carpets surface which inhibits the attachment of soil to the fiber.


Solution Dyeing
Technological process used to increase the fade resistance of a carpet. The color is added during production of carpet, rather than being dyed at a later stage.  


Space Dyed
Yarn dyed with two or more colors that alternate along the length.


Sprouting
Small tufts or loops of carpet that are visible after the installation. Can be removed by trimming with a pair of scissors.


Spun Yarn
A fiber of regular or irregular staple length that is bound together by twist.


Staple Yarn
Made from 6 – 7 inch cut lengths of fiber spun together to form one continuous filament. Several of these are twisted together to form strand of yarn which gives tremendous flexibility in styling as well as the good hand.


Stitch Rate
The measure of how close the yarns are together. Stitch rate is measured in penetrations, or tufts, in a given length of carpet, usually an inch. The stitch rate is controlled by how fast the carpet is moved through the tufting machine.


Tip Shearing
Tip sheared carpet is created by cutting the tips of some higher level loops on a carpet that has multiple height loops.  After shearing, only the higher loop tufts are cut and appear darker than the lower level loops.  This creates pattern and adds dimension.  


Transition
Generally, where two different types of material or flooring meet.


Tuft
A step in manufacturing that weaves the synthetic or staple fiber and penetrates the primary backing.


Twist
Carpet yarns are twisted around each other to produce both textural and performance characteristics. As a rule,the higher the twist the better the performance.  Twist is usually described as the number of turns per inch.